research projects


History of German nautical cartography

The project examines the development and the historical context of German nautical cartography from territorially influenced beginnings in the early modern period to the establishment of scientifically-based state hydrography in the German Reich.

Seafaring was – and is – economically and socially constitutive for Germany in its historical boundaries. Hydrographical information about the navigated maritime regions was essential for the safety of sea trade, fishing and the navy. Non-graphic nautical handbooks such as the so-called Low German "Sea Book" survive from as far back as Hanseatic times. The first large-scale nautical maps of the relevant shipping routes were created in the 16th century. In the Baltic area, the hydrography of the centrally-organised Swedish Navy dominated, whereas in western areas it was Dutch nautical cartography that prevailed.

German efforts were at first few and far between, and then with non-nautical intentions. It was first in the 18th century that independent maps reflecting practical issues came about. These came mostly from circles of nautical practice but at the same time cannot be described as being particularly advanced or contemporary from a scientific point of view. On the other hand, while the first state authorised hydrographical work of Prussian nautical cartography, the Nouvel Atlas de Marine from 1749, is scientifically brilliant and at the cutting edge of its time even by international standards, it is unsuitable for practical nautical purposes – and was not demonstrably used for such.

These circumstances raise various questions. What were the target groups for scientific cartography in the beginning phases and how did this influence the choice and design of the nautical maps? Which role did the "sea map" play at all as a navigational tool in early modern seafaring? And, ultimately, what parameters were necessary to bring together scientific nautical cartography and practical nautics?


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Karten – Meere. Neues Forschungsprojekt zu Seekarten am DSM

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